Tips Oli Pelumas | Tabel API Service Mesin Diesel | Disesel Engine API

 

Tips Oli Pelumas | Tabel API Service Mesin Diesel | Disesel Engine API

Tabel API Service Mesin Diesel / Diesel engine, digunakan untuk memilih oli pelumas yang tepat bagi Mesin Diesel / Diesel engine.

Automotive and engine manufacturers include these designations in their Owner/Operator Manuals. The following Engine Service Classifications
are guides to selecting proper oils for different engine designs and service conditions.

Automotive and engine manufacturers include these designations in their Owner/Operator Manuals. The following Engine Service Classificationsare guides to selecting proper oils for different engine designs and service conditions.

 

Kategori Status Service
CI-4 Terbaru Diperkenalkan pada 5 September  2002. Untuk high-speed, four-stroke engines dirancang untuk memenuhi standar emisi gas buang 2004 yang di implementasikan sejak  2002. Minyak CI-4 diformulasikan untuk mempertahankan daya tahan mesin dimana resirkulasi gas buang (EGR) digunakan dan dimaksudkan untuk digunakan pada bahan bakar solar dengan kandungan sulfur di mulai sampai dengan 0,5%. Dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti oli/pelumas CD, CE, CF-4, CG-4, dan-4 CH.
CH-4 Terbaru Diperkenalkan pada tahun 1998. Untuk high-speed, four-stroke engines, dirancang untuk memenuhi standar emisi gas buang 1998. Oli/pelumas CH-4 secara khusus digunakan pada bahan bakar solar mulai kandungan sulfur dalam sampai dengan 0,5%. Dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti Oli/pelumas CD, CE, CF-4, dan CG-4.
CG-4 Terbaru Diperkenalkan pada tahun 1995. Untuk high speed, four-stroke engines yang menggunakan bahan bakar dengan sulfur kurang dari 0,5%. Oli/pelumas CG-4 diperlukan untuk mesin yang memenuhi standar emisi 1994. Dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti Oli/pelumasCD, CE, dan CF-4.
CF-4 Terbaru Diperkenalkan pada tahun 1990. Untuk high-speed, four-stroke, naturally aspirated and turbocharged engines. Dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti oli/pelumas CD dan CE.
CF-2 Terbaru Diperkenalkan pada tahun 1994. Untuk severe duty, two-stroke cycle engines. Dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti oli/pelumas CD-II.
CF Terbaru Diperkenalkan pada tahun 1994. Untuk off-road, indirect injected and dan mesin diesel  lainnya termasuk yang menggunakan bahan bakar dengan berat sulfur lebih dari 0,5%. Dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti oli/pelumas CD.
CE Tidak terpakai Introduced in 1987. For high-speed, four-stroke, naturally aspirated and turbocharged engines. Can be used in place of CC and CD oils.Diperkenalkan pada tahun 1987. Untuk high-speed, four-stroke, naturally aspirated and turbocharged engines. Dapat digunakan sebagai pengganti oli pelumas CC dan CD.
CD-II Tidak terpakai Diperkenalkan pada tahun 1987. Untuk two-stroke-cycle engines
CD Tidak terpakai Diperkenalkan pada tahun  1955. Untuk naturally aspirated and turbocharged engines.
CC Tidak terpakai Untuk mesin diesel yang diproduksi tahun 1961.
CB Tidak terpakai Untuk mesin diesel tugas moderat 1949-1960.
CA Tidak terpakai Untuk mesin diesel tugas ringan (1940 dan 1950-an).

Copyright 2004 – American Petroleum Institute. All rights reserved. API, the API logo, the API Service Symbol (Donut), the API Service Symbol with CI-4 PLUS logo and the API Certification Mark (Starburst) are either trademarks or registered trademarks of the American Petroleum Institute in the United States and / or other countries. Printed in U.S.A. P38EN3FTNYU4

 

Motor Oil

Motor oil is a lubricant used in internal combustion engines. These include motor or road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles, heavier vehicles such as buses and commercial vehicles, non-road vehicles such as go-karts, snowmobiles, boats (fixed engine installations and outboards), lawn mowers, large agricultural and construction equipment, locomotives and aircraft, and static engines such as electrical generators. In engines, there are parts which move against each other causing friction which wastes otherwise useful power by converting the energy to heat. Contact between moving surfaces also wears away those parts, which could lead to lower efficiency and degradation of the engine. This increases fuel consumption and decreases power output and can, in extreme cases, lead to engine failure.

Lubricating oil creates a separating film between surfaces of adjacent moving parts to minimize direct contact between them, decreasing heat caused by friction and reducing wear, thus protecting the engine. In use, motor oil transfers heat through convection as it flows through the engine by means of air flow over the surface of the oil pan, an oil cooler and through the build up of oil gases evacuated by the Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) system.

In petrol (gasoline) engines, the top piston ring can expose the motor oil to temperatures of 320 °F (160 °C). In diesel engines the top ring can expose the oil to temperatures over 600 °F (315 °C). Motor oils with higher viscosity indices thin less at these higher temperatures.

Coating metal parts with oil also keeps them from being exposed to oxygen, inhibiting oxidation at elevated operating temperatures preventing rust or corrosion. Corrosion inhibitors may also be added to the motor oil. Many motor oils also have detergents and dispersants added to help keep the engine clean and minimize oil sludge build-up.

Rubbing of metal engine parts inevitably produces some microscopic metallic particles from the wearing of the surfaces. Such particles could circulate in the oil and grind against moving parts, causing wear. Because particles accumulate in the oil, it is typically circulated through an oil filter to remove harmful particles. An oil pump, a vane or gear pump powered by the engine, pumps the oil throughout the engine, including the oil filter. Oil filters can be a full flow or bypass type.

In the crankcase of a vehicle engine, motor oil lubricates rotating or sliding surfaces between the crankshaft journal bearings (main bearings and big-end bearings), and rods connecting the pistons to the crankshaft. The oil collects in an oil pan, or sump, at the bottom of the crankcase. In some small engines such as lawn mower engines, dippers on the bottoms of connecting rods dip into the oil at the bottom and splash it around the crankcase as needed to lubricate parts inside. In modern vehicle engines, the oil pump takes oil from the oil pan and sends it through the oil filter into oil galleries, from which the oil lubricates the main bearings holding the crankshaft up at the main journals and camshaft bearings operating the valves. In typical modern vehicles, oil pressure-fed from the oil galleries to the main bearings enters holes in the main journals of the crankshaft. From these holes in the main journals, the oil moves through passageways inside the crankshaft to exit holes in the rod journals to lubricate the rod bearings and connecting rods. Some simpler designs relied on these rapidly moving parts to splash and lubricate the contacting surfaces between the piston rings and interior surfaces of the cylinders. However, in modern designs, there are also passageways through the rods which carry oil from the rod bearings to the rod-piston connections and lubricate the contacting surfaces between the piston rings and interior surfaces of the cylinders. This oil film also serves as a seal between the piston rings and cylinder walls to separate the combustion chamber in the cylinder head from the crankcase. The oil then drips back down into the oil pan. Via:wikipedia

 

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